Category Archives: OSD / SCCM / MDT

PXE only works for X number of clients; DHCP works fine

Difficult to pick a snappy title for this so suggestions welcome!

Anyway, I had an issue recently where we needed to load test 100+ machines, all booted from PXE. All machines were fresh out the box and all ethernet adaptors were fully registered in SCCM in the ignore list. In short, there was no reason for any machine not to PXE boot as expected. All went well until the 29th machine and then every machine thereafter refused to PXE boot. However, they did still receive an IP address. Additionally, the message Server response timeout E-18 flashed up very quickly before booting from the SSD.

Digging a little further, the machines that were able to PXE boot fine had to receive an IP address between .2 and .31 to work. Any IP after just refused to work.  Having accepted that all was well from a firewall perspective, I was forced to concede that the problem was somehow local.

Solution:

To cut a long and boring story short, the problem turned out to be a mis-configured subnet mask on the PXE server, in this case 255.255.255.224 instead of the 255.255.255.0 that it was supposed to be. The PXE server itself was allocated an IP within the range of PXE bootable clients and anything outside the range didn’t work. So easy when you know but one expects the basics to be correct so it took a while to track down. Hopefully this will provide some more ideas for anyone else who finds themselves with a similar issues.

Error Code 1 – Using Invoke-MbamClientDeployment.ps1 in SCCM OSD

I know I’m not alone in the misery of getting this less-than-perfect script to work during OSD and after a good couple of weeks of on-off testing I can finally say I got my desired result and it most certainly deserved a post. Please note, you may need to click on the pictures to see them fully.

GOAL:

Encrypt used space only with XTSAES256 encryption and escrow keys in MBAM database during SCCM OSD task sequence. I also need a PIN to be requested automatically at first logon.

I’m not going to detail the ins and outs of what I tried because this post will be far longer than necessary so I’ll concentrate on the steps that finally got it working for me. Don’t get me wrong, this is a buggy script that should really have been updated by Microsoft by now.  Error code 1 is an extremely common problem and can result for any number of reasons.

I would suggest you create an MBAM section in the task sequence, filtering on laptops or whatever criteria you require and add the steps below to this section.

High Level:

    1. DISABLE ALL BITLOCKER PRE-PROVISION STEPS
    2. DISABLE ROOT CERTIFICATE UPDATE
    3. STOP THE MBAM SERVICE
    4. ADD ENCRYPTIONMETHOD
    5.  ADD OSENCRYPTIONTYPE
    6. ADD  ENCRYPTIONMETHODWITHXTSOS
    7. ADD  ENACTONFIRSTLOGINREQUIRED
    8. REMOVE STARTUP DELAY
    9. START MBAM SERVICE
    10. FORCE USER TO SELECT A NEW PIN ON FIRST LOGIN
    11. RUN INVOKE-MBAMCLIENTDEPLOYMENT.PS1 SCRIPT
    12. RE-ENABLE ROOT CERTIFICATE UPDATE

1. DISABLE ALL BITLOCKER PRE-PROVISION STEPS

Contrary to what I have read elsewhere, the pre-provision step in the task sequence isn’t necessary. In fact, it’ inclusion will cause the error code 1. These steps should be disabled.

2. DISABLE ROOT CERTIFICATE UPDATE

This is a strange one but I have had trouble getting the Invoke-MbamClientDeployment.ps1 to run properly without first disabling the certificate update mechanism in Windows. Trust me, just do it, reboot, run the rest of the steps and make sure you remember to re-enable afterwards.

REG ADD HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\SystemCertificates\AuthRoot /v DisableRootAutoUpdate /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

3. STOP THE MBAM SERVICE
The assumption is that you have installed the MBAM 2.5 SP1 client with the August 2017 hotfix by this stage so there will be an MBAM Agent service running on the machine.

Net stop mbamagent

4.  ENCRYPTIONMETHOD

Now I am recreating what worked for me here and despite my requirement for XTSAES256 the below setting seems to work fine for this in my task sequence. However evidence elsewhere suggests the DWORD value should be 7. Feel free to test in your own environment though and let me know how you get on.

REG ADD HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\FVE /v EncryptionMethod /t REG_DWORD /d 2 /f

5.  ADD OSENCRYPTIONTYPE
We want used space only as this is quickest. See here for other values. Be careful though – if you want the PIN prompt to appear at first logon the disk has to be ‘fully encrypted’, ie with used space only OR full disk. If the disk is still encrypting when the user logs on, they won’t be prompted for the PIN.

REG ADD HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\FVE /v OSEncryptionType /t REG_DWORD /d 2 /f

6. ADD ENCRYPTIONMETHODWITHXTSOS

This is where * I believe * stage 3 gets overwritten (tbc). Essentially this will set the OS encryption to XTSAES256.

REG ADD HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\FVE /v EncryptionMethodWithXtsOs /t REG_DWORD /d 7 /f


7. ADD  ENACTONFIRSTLOGINREQUIRED

Call the MBAMClientUI on first login. Technically this shouldn't be needed as I have a step further down which will call this anyway but no harm in adding.
REG ADD HKLM\Software\Microsoft\MBAM /v EnactOnFirstLoginRequired /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

8. REMOVE STARTUP DELAY
Force MBAM client to wake up within a minute.

REG ADD HKLM\Software\Microsoft\MBAM /v NoStartupDelay /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

9. RE-START MBAM SERVICE

Net start mbamagent


10. FORCE USER TO SELECT A NEW PIN ON FIRST LOGIN
This adds a setting to the default user so that every NEW user that logs onto the machine gets prompted for a new MBAM PIN for startup. Note, this will only fire if the disk is fully encrypted to type, ie used space only or full disk. Since we’re aiming for used space only here, disk encryption is pretty quick but it still needs to complete before the prompt will appear. If you log on before encryption is complete then the automatic prompt won’t appear and you will instead need to rely on GPO.

powershell.exe -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -command "reg load HKLM\DefaultUser C:\Users\Default\NTUSER.DAT; New-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\Defaultuser\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce' -Name PromptForPIN -Value '""C:\Program Files\Microsoft\MDOP MBAM\MBAMClientUI.exe"""' -Type String; reg unload HKLM\DefaultUser"

11. RUN INVOKE-MBAMCLIENTDEPLOYMENT.PS1 SCRIPT
The script itself. Note the encryption method, Unspecified. Because we have specified the encryption method earlier, the XTSAES256 encryption is automatically derived from that. Strangely, I couldn’t get this script to work unless I used this parameter and manually set the reg entry. Also note, I am running the script from the local installation of the MBAM client. This ensures that I am running the script that is aligned to that version of the client, ie it should contain any updates provided by any client upgrades you’ve applied, eg August 2017 update.

powershell.exe -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -File "C:\Program Files\Microsoft\MDOP MBAM\Invoke-MbamClientDeployment.ps1" https://MBAMSERVER.local/MBAMRecoveryAndHardwareService/CoreService.svc -EncryptionMethod UNSPECIFIED


12. RE-ENABLE ROOT CERTIFICATE UPDATE
Don’t forget to re-enable this otherwise you’ll end up with all sorts of certificate errors when trying to reach HTTPS sites.

 

That’s it. One would assume much of this legwork should automatically be taken care of by the script itself but unfortunately that doesn’t appear to be the case. Don’t forget, you will also need to make sure that no MBAM policies are in place when the script runs. This isn’t a problem with SCCM as GPOs will be suppressed but if you’re using native MDT this can be an issue.

Hopefully this will save some of you a few hours (more likely days) of frustration!

Simon

 

0x8007000f Task Sequence Error

Really quick post on issue experienced recently.

We were trying to build some Lenovo T470Ps and one was exhibiting this error just before the task sequence was to start and failed as a result before we even got off the ground. The error translates to The system cannot find the drive specified. However I knew for a fact that the drivers were OK as other T470Ps were building fine.

Transpires that somewhere along the way, something had indeed got mixed up on the disk and it was having problems with the config. I initially tried a DISKPART then CLEAN but this wasn’t enough and it was continuing to fail.

In the end I resorted to doing the task sequence’s job manually and recreating the partitions as follows:

Open CMD prompt (F8):

1. Diskpart
2. Select disk 0 (0 being the disk to setup)
3. Clean
4. Convert gpt
5. Create partition efi size=300
6. Format quick fs=FAT32
7. Create partition msr size=128
8. Create partition primary
9. Assign letter=c
10.Format quick fs=NTFS

Exit DISKPART and try again – this time the task sequence continued as expected.

Change login screen language in MDT / SCCM (Server Core)

I came across an interesting (if very frustrating) issue recently when a client provided me with an updated version of Windows Server 2012 R2. Prior to being handed the new media, I was using my own copy of Server 2012 R2 which is Build 6.3.9600.16384. I set up my MDT build which had a task sequence for each version of Server 2012 R2, Standard, Standard Core, Datacenter and Datacenter Core.  Everything was fine and the UI language was configured correctly throughout.

I received the new media which was Build 6.3.9600.17415 and replaced my original copy of Server with this new version. All appeared to be fine until I tried to log in to the two Server Core versions where my password wasn’t being accepted. It transpires that these have some kind of bug / difference whereby the Input Locale doesn’t change to the configured language. In my case, I had an American (en-us) keyboard and I wanted to use an English (en-gb) keyboard. Weirdly, this was only the case for the core versions; the GUI versions were fine.

I spent a good deal of time scouring the internet for a fix to this and it appears quite a few people had the same issue, eg:
https://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/windowsserver/en-US/d82dd905-e346-4a94-87e6-a78d59f4941c/keyboard-layout-wrong-on-logon-screen-but-fine-on-desktop?forum=windowsserver2008r2general
or
http://windowsitpro.com/systems-management/how-do-i-configure-default-keyboard-layout-during-login

This one was also interesting but the application of the fix wasn’t explained clearly and I gave up on it.

Mostly, the ‘fix’ was to change the HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Keyboard Layout\Preload setting to the proper value and this does seem to work if you log on and change this manually in the registry. However I could not get this setting to stick when I applied it through any scripting mechanism.

I eventually found a solution though through group policy which I applied during the build. The steps below are for MDT but the same can easily be applied for SCCM.

Create a new GPO and browse to Computer Configuration\Policies\Admin Templates\System\Locale Services
Change Disallow copying of user input methods to the system account for sign in to Enabled.
Create a backup of the policy and copy it to your deployment share. Rename it from {GUID} to LogonKB. I created a custom directory to store this in called Custom2012R2. Under this I had a directory called GPOBackup which contain any GPOs I need to apply.
Download a copy of lgpo.exe and stick it in your tools\%architecture% directory (in practice you want the x64 version)
Create a TS step just before the Tattoo step called Copy GPOs Locally as below
Command line: xcopy “%DEPLOYROOT%\Custom_2012R2\GPOBackup” C:\Windows\Temp /e /i

6. Next, create another step to apply the GPO, directly after the copy step and call this Apply GPO logon keyboard.
Command line:

“%DEPLOYROOT%\Tools\%ARCHITECTURE%\lgpo.exe” /g “C:\Windows\Temp\LogonKB”

It is important these two steps are early in the task sequence as the ‘damage’ is already done if you apply them too late. What is actually happening is that the GPO you have applied is preventing the Input Locale from being copied over to the login screen keyboard locale. You can see this before and after by running up the systeminfo command from a command prompt. On a machine without the application of the GPO the Input Locale will show up as:

Input Locale: en-us;English (united States)

and this will get copied over to the login screen language during build time. The GPO prevents this from happening and keeps the setting at en-gb.

I hope this will save others many hours of frustration.

New OSD Task Sequence Not Displaying

Recently been testing an upgrade scenario from ConfigMgr 2012 SP2 to Current Branch 1702 and during the course of putting together the legacy environment I came across a strange issue I’d not seen before. Essentially it goes like this:

A new OSD task sequence is created (doesn’t matter whether it is MDT-infused or not) and is deployed to All Unknown Computers. In my case I was using boot media to reach the WinPE environment on my test VM but there were no task sequences displayed. Checking the smsts.log file in the WinPE environment, it suggests that no policies are found.

The first time this happened the task sequence eventually appeared after about an hour or so. The next day I created a new one and exactly the same thing happened, with just the old TS showing up. I then saw this thread and changed my new task sequence availability time back 1 day. Et voila, the task sequence appeared.

Hope this helps anyone else scratching their head…

OSD Scripting Hacks Part 4 – Renaming NICs

In a new series of short posts I’m going to show how to get around some frustrations I have had with the lack of GPO support for some common requirements plus a few other issues I have come across which have crept up recently.

More for a bit of fun really but this was another serious request I have had where a machine contained several adaptors, they should all be sequentially named to specification, in this case NIC1, NIC2, NIC3 ,etc.

Here’s the script. It renames the adaptor numerically and outputs to a logfile:

# Rename NICs
$number=0
ForEach($nic in (Get-NetAdapter -Name *)) {
$number += 1
Get-NetAdapter -Name $nic.Name | Rename-NetAdapter -NewName NIC$number - PassThru | Out-File %WinDir%\Temp\NicName.log -Append
 }

For MDT users I recommend using a commandline action as follows:

powershell.exe -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -command "$number=0; ForEach($nic in (Get-NetAdapter -Name *)) { $number+=1; Get-NetAdapter -Name $nic.Name | Rename-NetAdapter -NewName NIC$number -PassThru | Out-File %WinDir%\Temp\NicName.log -Append }"

That concludes this series for now until such time as another request comes my way…

 

OSD Scripting Hacks Part 3 – Disable NETBIOS in Powershell

In a new series of short posts I’m going to show how to get around some frustrations I have had with the lack of GPO support for some common requirements plus a few other issues I have come across which have crept up recently.

Another requirement that came up in my recent project was to disable the NETBIOS over TCP/IP setting function under the network adaptor settings | IPv4 properties | Advanced. The issue here is that there are multiple GUIDs present in the registry that must be changed and these can’t be easily predicted. Fortunately Powershell is kind to us and allows the use of a wildcard (*) to just hit them all. This is achieved with the following script:

 # Disables NETBIOS over TCP/IP
set-ItemProperty HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\NetBT\Parameters\Interfaces\tcpip* -Name NetbiosOptions -Value 2

For MDT users, I recommend using a commandline action as follows:

powershell.exe -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -command "set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\NetBT\Parameters\Interfaces\tcpip*' -Name NetbiosOptions -Value 2"

Next, renaming NICs!

OSD Scripting Hacks Part 2 – Performance Settings

In a new series of short posts I’m going to show how to get around some frustrations I have had with the lack of GPO support for some common requirements plus a few other issues I have come across which have crept up recently.

In part 2, I will show you how to change the performance settings via a script which can be run from a task sequence step. Like the file extensions in Part 1, this was another area that (at the time of writing) seems frustratingly missing from group policy. I was creating an MDT task sequence recently to build some servers and one of the requirements was that the Visual Effects setting was specifically set for ‘Best Performance’ as opposed to Let Windows choose…

Anyway, the script:

# VisualFX - Best Performance
$RegKey ="HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\VisualEffects"
Set-ItemProperty -Path $RegKey -Name VisualFXSetting -Type DWORD -Value 2

For MDT, you may wish to run this as a commandline as follows:

powershell.exe -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -command "set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\VisualEffects' -Name VisualFXSetting -Type DWORD -Value 2"

In the above I set the value to 2 for best performance. Other values can be:
0 – Let Windows choose what’s best for my computer settings.
1 – for Adjust for best appearance settings.
2 – for Adjust for best Performance settings.
3 – for Custom settings.

OSD Scripting Hack Part 1 – Enable file extensions for all users

In a new series of short posts I’m going to show how to get around some frustrations I have had with the lack of GPO support for some common requirements plus a few other issues I have come across which have crept up recently.

First in the series is a build fix for file extensions. By default, these aren’t enabled and at the time of writing there isn’t a GPO that can be applied that applies them for users when they log on so they have to be enabled manually. Personally I find it frustrating that I can’t see what kind of file something is and it is usually the first thing I change when  I log into a new computer. Anyway, among others, this became a requirement for a recent project I was on and after a bit of playing around and further research I came up with the following Powershell script:

reg load HKLM\DefaultUser C:\Users\Default\NTUSER.DAT
 $path = "HKLM:\Defaultuser\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced"
 New-ItemProperty -Path $path -Name HideFileExt -Value "0" -Type DWord
 reg unload HKLM\DefaultUser

This should be run as a task sequence step but depending on your deployment tool of choice, Powershell commands can occasionally be a little fussy. If you are using MDT, you might find the following works better if set up as a commandline:

Powershell.exe -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -command "reg load HKLM\DefaultUser C:\Users\Default\NTUSER.DAT; New-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\Defaultuser\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced' -Name HideFileExt -Value 0 -Type DWord; reg unload HKLM\DefaultUser"

The above should also work fine for SCCM although SCCM isn’t as picky as stand-alone MDT so either might work there.

Next time, Performance settings.